Fifteen U.S. states currently have broad-based college merit scholarship programs (including Utah). Based on either high school grade point averages or scores on college entrance exams, these in-state tuition scholarships are awarded to at least 30 percent of each state's graduating high school class. In total, the 15 states spend about $2,191 per recipient or $1.4 billion per year. The aid programs appear to slightly increase the probability that residents born in the state live there after college, but they may also decrease the probability that people attain a four-year college degree.
In the NBER Working Paper No. 18530, co-authors Maria Fitzpatrick and Damon Jones use Census and American Community Survey data to track college attendance, college completion, and residential decisions of 24-to-32 year olds between 1990 and 2010. National Bureau of Economic Research